Like all of medicine and nursing, the practice of Obstetrics and Gynecology is rapidly evolving. The specialty is continually pressured by the forces from managed care, the reimbursements from government programs such as Medicare and Medicaid, and the need for greater efficiency and patient safety. Patients are becoming more knowledgeable, as they tend to research on the internet, and more discriminating as they choose the optimal treatment and best physicians to help them. These elements, together, are impacting Obstetrics and Gynecology. We will now explore how the specialty of Women’s Health is affected by these changes and how it may evolve.

·        Advances in Obstetrics and Gynecology
·        Infections in Obstetrics  
·        Clinical Obstetrics
·        Operative Obstetrics
·        Perinatology
Midwifery is a very noble field of medicine that has been around for thousands of years. Midwives are arguably some of the most important people in women's health care. A career in this area could see you supporting countless mothers and their children from early pregnancy to well after birth. Midwifery research has an important role to play in meeting the general goals of maternity care: safety, satisfaction and low costs. The aim is to make people feel valued, respected and supported, deliver excellence in safe high quality care, Maximise the professional contribution of nurses and midwives, Deliver excellent, person-centred compassionate care.

·        Obstetrical nursing
·        Maternal health care
·        Labor risk and care
·        Unplanned pregnancy risk
·        Childbirth supervision
This area of expertise offers nurses the opportunity to focus on the particular physical and emotional needs of women and newborns. It encompasses every aspect of women's health, from pregnancy and postpartum care through gynecology/oncology. For women who suffer issues during childbirth, undergo surgery, or are receiving complicated therapies, nurses can make a major difference to attain excellent outcomes. Empowering women to take control of their own health and promoting healthy lifestyles are the main objectives of the nursing care offered in this expertise.

·        Women Health & Emergency Maternal Care
·        Autoimmune Diseases
·        Depression & Anxiety
·        Osteoporosis and Bone Health
·        Effect of Drugs on Pregnancy
Maternal mortality has either grown or stalled in almost every region of the world in recent years, which is concerning for women's health. Many nations struggle to increase mother and newborn survival rates and lower stillbirth rates because of uneven access to inexpensive, high-quality health care and services. Most maternal and neonatal deaths take occurred in areas where there is violence or displacement. Every mother and child has the right to access affordable, superior medical care before, during, and after pregnancy.

·        Pregnancy and Perinatology
·        Maternal-Fetal Medicine
·        Assessment of Fetal Wellbeing
·        Medical Disorders in Pregnancy
·        High-risk Pregnancy
·        Evaluation of breast
Gynecologic Oncology and Reproductive Medicine, which focuses on cancer treatment innovation, has a wide range of active clinical investigations. Focus on developing the next generation of advanced approaches for the treatment and prevention of gynecologic cancers while integrating basic science with clinical and translational research to offer exceptional care for patients. With a better understanding of tumor biology, the identification of new treatment targets, and improved diagnosis of genetic predisposition syndromes, the management of gynecologic cancer has changed during the past ten years.

·        Women Reproductive Cancers
·        Preventive Oncology
·        Diagnosis and Management of Gynecological Malignancies
·        Chemotherapy
·        Cytology
Millions of women worldwide are affected by pelvic floor problems, such as urine incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse (POP), and bowel dysfunction, which have a substantial cost and quality of life impact. These illnesses will affect one-third of all women at some point in their life. A few fundamental problems with the female pelvic floor are treated by urogynecology, including stress incontinence, hyperactive bladder, trouble voiding, bladder pain, urethral pain, and vaginal or uterine prolapse.

·        Preventive Urogynecology
·        Management and Surgery in Incontinence
·        Genital Trauma and Fistulae
·        Urinary and fecal incontinence
·        Pelvic organ prolapse
Technology advancements are expanding the availability of sexual and reproductive health services that used to be available in medical institutions. Self-care therapies are currently being used all over the world and are fast growing with little guidance or control. For those who are vulnerable, a human rights and legal analysis may reveal potential problems and helps lead the enabling environment needed to ensure appropriate and equal access to high-quality self-care activities.

·        Male Infertility
·        Female Infertility
·        Disorders of Sexual Development
·        Reproductive Endocrinology
·        Management of Subfertility
Both developed and developing nations have witnessed a rise in the proportion of women who have access to contraceptives over the past 20 years. The right to the maximum practicable level of physical and mental health includes access to contraception as a fundamental component. According to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, women have the right to "freely and responsibly" choose the number and spacing of their children as well as to "access the information, education, and means necessary to enable them to exercise these rights."

·        Fertility awareness
·        Emergency contraception
·        Barrier methods 
·        Hormonal contraception
·        Long-acting reversible contraception or Intrauterine devices (IUD)
Gynecologic issues can occur at any age. Young people have different needs than adults. The gynecologic concerns may vary from neonatal ovarian cysts to puberty issues or menstruation problems. Pediatric and adolescent gynecologists have specialized training that allows them to identify and treat female reproductive system disorders. Laparoscopy is currently regarded as a common surgical method in children and adolescents for the treatment of gynecological problems.

·        Menopause
·        Endometriosis
·        Menstrual cycle and Ovulation
·        Female embryological development
·        Uterus condition
·        Endocrine function and growth
Gynecologic surgery has developed over the years from a largely abdominal approach to a contemporary emphasis on minimally invasive surgical procedures. Vaginal and laparoscopic methods are examples of minimally invasive techniques. Laparoscopic technology and equipment have evolved rapidly, with numerous vessel sealing instruments of varying modalities, instruments with "wristed" capabilities, and robotic assisted technologies being available. Other types of laparoscopic technology include single port laparoscopy and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. Shorter hospital stays, faster patient recovery, less blood loss, fewer infections, and better patient satisfaction are all associated with vaginal and laparoscopic surgery, as well as robotic assisted surgery.

·        Open gynecologic surgery
·        Vaginal surgery
·        Laparoscopy
·        Robotic surgery
·        Hysteroscopy
Aesthetics or Cosmetic Gynecology is a rapidly emerging subspecialty of elective surgery for women that includes specialists in gynecology, urogynecology, urology, and plastic surgery. Postmenopausal women, as well as events such as childbearing and age, may have structural and functional changes in their genitalia. The resulting signs not only create psychological discomfort in women, but also have a severe impact on their sexual well-being and life quality. Aesthetics or Cosmetic Gynecology is growing in popularity as more women seek aesthetic enhancements and medical remedies for their intimate areas. This field has grown because of increased awareness, improved technology, and the good influence on confidence and well-being.

·        Laser in Gynecology
·        Vaginal rejuvenation
·        Non-invasive urinary incontinence management
·        Cosmetivaricose vein treatment
Women's gynecological health needs extend beyond their reproductive years. As they approach menopause and beyond, women are at risk of hormonal shifts, gynecological cancers, and a variety of genitourinary disorders. Menopausal women's longer life expectancy and better health standards have prompted new advancements in hormone replacement therapy. The rising use of such therapy has also resulted in improved surveillance and, as a result, recognition of other frequent disorders affecting older women.

·        Preoperative and postoperative medical care
·        Urogenital atrophy and vulvovaginitis
·        Sexual dysfunction
·        Pelvic floor prolapse
·        Urinary incontinence and urinary tract infection
Recent breakthroughs in gynaecology have been aided by advancements in imaging technology, endoscopic equipment, pharmacological treatment, and scientific innovation. For many common gynaecological disorders, laparoscopic and hysteroscopic surgery, medicinal treatment, and expectant care are replacing major gynaecological surgery. When ovarian cancer has advanced to the lining of the abdominal cavity, hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is a highly effective method of delivering chemotherapy.

·        Donor Conception
·        Surrogacy
·        Medicated Intrauterine Devices
·        Ultrasound Techniques
Today, the specialization of gynaecological endocrinology encompasses a wide range of physiological and pathological mechanisms, as well as ovarian axis-related endocrine illnesses. Gynaecological endocrinological processes accompany a wife from pregnancy and birth to late postmenopause, navigating puberty, menstrual cycle irregularities, androgenization, and infertility. Reproductive endocrinologists provide a variety of therapies for reproductive issues, including in vitro fertilization, gynecologic operations, and hormone treatments.

·        Basic Anatomy and Physiology
·        Diagnostic Procedures
·        Endocrine Disorders in the Female
·        Hormonal Physiology
Pathologists who are skilled in gynecologic pathology play a vital part in women's healthcare by assisting with diagnosis, prognosis, and managing a variety of gynecologic conditions such as malignant and benign tumors, infections, inflammatory disorders, hormonal disturbances, and developmental anomalies. Some of the ongoing research areas in gynecology pathology includes cervical cancer screening and diagnosis, endometrial cancer biomarkers, ovarian cancer classification, uterine pathologies and reproductive health, genomic studies, placental pathology and pregnancy complications, innovations in pathological techniques and reproductive immunology.

·        Pathology of the vagina
·        Cervical Pathology
·        Pathology of Uterus
·        Pathology of Fallopian tube
Gynecologic disorders range in severity and can have an impact on a woman's reproductive health, hormone balance, and overall well-being.  Endometriosis, adenomyosis, vulvodynia, high-tone pelvic floor dysfunction, and Genito pelvic pain/penetration disease are all common gynecological diseases. The treatment of gynecologic problems depends on the condition and its underlying cause and are mostly treated with medication, but in some cases surgery, followed by chemotherapy and radiation, is necessary.

·        Cervical Dysplasia
·        Menstrual Disorders
·        Pelvic Floor Prolapse
·        Birth defects
Individuals who have experienced pregnancy loss are examined for problems that need emergency care and then counseled upon the various therapeutic decisions which include expectant, pharmaceutical, and surgical management. Ongoing fertility therapy and intervention research examined the efficacy and safety of various fertility therapies, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), in women who had a history of recurrent miscarriages. Transvaginal ultrasound is usually performed on all pregnant women who have signs or symptoms of pregnancy loss to confirm both an intrauterine pregnancy and evidence of viability.

·        Vaginal Bleeding
·        Pregnancy Bleeding
·        Ectopic Pregnancy
·        Threatened Miscarriage
Pregnancy is a time in a woman's life when her nutritional status has an impact on her health, pregnancy outcomes, and the health of her fetus-neonate. Poor nutrition causes it to be more difficult for mothers to regain their nutritional stores and meet their increasing dietary needs. The ongoing research are looking into the effects of various dietary patterns, such as vegetarian or Mediterranean diets, on maternal and child health outcomes. Understanding the benefits and dangers of various dietary options can help inform dietary recommendations for pregnant women and children.

·        Health economics including cost-effectiveness studies
·        Behavior change
·        Physiological, sociocultural, psychological, economic and political aspects of nutrition
·        Nutritional needs of mothers and their children in health and disease
·        Health Improvement
Specialized care and management techniques are implemented in cases of high-risk pregnancies or unforeseen difficulties during labor to optimize outcomes for both the mother and the infant. The healthcare team offers rapid care to the newborn after birth, including examinations, vital sign monitoring, and interventions as needed. In the event of complications, neonatal specialists may be called in. Models of Patient-Centered Care examine the adoption and impact of patient-centered care models that prioritize the mother's preferences and requirements during labor and delivery. Maternal-Fetal monitoring technology advancements improve the diagnosis of potential difficulties during labor and delivery, resulting in earlier intervention and better perinatal outcomes.

·        Amniotic fluid embolism
·        Post-partum hemorrhage: prevention and treatment
·        Placenta accreta spectrum disorders: diagnosis and management
·        Simulation and artificial intelligence on the labor and delivery floor
Women's health is heavily influenced by socioeconomic status, which includes characteristics such as education level, income, and work. Higher levels of education are related with better health behaviors, increased healthcare utilization, and improved maternal and child health outcomes in women. Work-related factors such as job stress, working hours, and workplace regulations (for example, paid maternity leave) can all have an impact on women's physical and emotional health. Women's health outcomes can be strongly influenced by the availability and accessibility of reproductive health services such as family planning, prenatal care, and safe abortion services.

·        Addressing Maternal Mortality
·        Sustainable Development Goals
·        Medical Education and Training
·        Information Technology in Women's Health, Ethics and Law in Women's Health